(Bloomberg) -- Federal Reserve officials held off from raising borrowing costs and scaled back forecasts for how high interest rates will rise this year, citing the potential impact from weaker global growth and market turmoil in the U.S. economy.
The Federal Open Market Committee kept the target range for the benchmark federal funds rate at 0.25% to 0.5%, the central bank said in a statement Wednesday following a two-day meeting in Washington. The median of policy makers’ updated quarterly projections saw the rate at 0.875% at the end of 2016, implying two quarter-point increases this year, down from four forecast in December.
“The committee currently expects that, with gradual adjustments in the stance of monetary policy, economic activity will expand at a moderate pace and labor market indicators will continue to strengthen,” the FOMC said. “However, global economic and financial developments continue to pose risks.”
Kansas City Fed President Esther George dissented from the decision, preferring a quarter-point rate increase.
Weaker-than-forecast global growth has clouded the U.S. outlook and led investors to expect a slower pace of tightening since the Fed raised rates in December for the first time in almost a decade. Yellen said in February that market turbulence had “significantly” tightened financial conditions by pushing down stock prices, causing the dollar to strengthen and boosting some borrowing costs.
“Economic activity has been expanding at a moderate pace,” with household spending gaining amid “soft” company investment and net exports, the Fed said. While inflation has “picked up in recent months,” market-based measures of inflation compensation are still low, the central bank said.
The median of Fed officials’ projections, known as the “dot plot,” saw the federal funds rate at 1.875% at the end of 2017, compared with 2.375% forecast in December. The end-2018 level fell to 3%, from 3.25%, with the longer-run projection at 3.25%, down from 3.5%.
Policy makers maintained their projections on how soon inflation will return to the Fed’s 2% target, while cutting their inflation forecast to 1.2% this year from
1.6 %. Officials still see the preferred price gauge rising 1.9% in 2017 and 2% in 2018.
Officials maintained their forecast for a 4.7% U.S. unemployment rate in the fourth quarter of this year. The median projection for 2017 fell to 4.6 % from 4.7%, and in 2018 to 4.5% from 4.7%. The rate stood at 4.9% in February.
“A range of recent indicators, including strong job gains, points to additional strengthening of the labor market,” the FOMC said.
The Fed reiterated that the “stance of monetary policy remains accommodative, thereby supporting further improvement in labor market conditions and a return to 2 % inflation.”
Economists in a Bloomberg survey conducted earlier this month put the probability of an April rate increase at 15% and chances of a June move at 42%. That compares to market-implied projections of 25% for April and 54% for June, according to pricing in fedfunds futures as of Tuesday.
Fed officials have differed publicly about economic prospects, with Governor Lael Brainard on March 7 arguing for patience in tightening monetary policy while Vice Chairman Stanley Fischer on the same day pointed to the “first stirrings” of inflation.
Yellen and her colleagues have singled out uncertainty over China’s outlook as a risk to U.S. growth.
The domestic U.S. economy has mostly been solid, however. Payroll gains have averaged 235,000 over the last six months as the jobless rate matched the Fed’s goal for maximum employment, though measures of long-term unemployment and wage growth suggest the labor market still has room to grow.
Some progress has also been made on the inflation side of the Fed’s dual mandate. The personal consumption expenditures price index, which the Fed targets at 2% annual gains, rose 1.3% in January from a year earlier, after 13 consecutive months with rises below 1%, owing to a slide in energy prices.
The separate consumer price index released Wednesday showed prices, excluding food and energy, rose by a greater-than-anticipated 0.3 % in February from the previous month.
Oil prices have surged around 40% since mid-February, when the cost for a barrel of crude fell to about $26, the lowest since 2003.
U.S. stock markets, which had slumped by more than 10% by mid-February from the start of the year, have also regained ground, with the S&P 500 now down just 1.4% this year through Tuesday. Meanwhile the dollar, whose strength in 2015 hurt U.S. exports and dented growth, has slipped about 1.3% against a broad basket of currencies since Dec. 31.
The Fed’s tightening bias contrasts with aggressive easing abroad.
The European Central Bank unleashed another round of unprecedented stimulus last week that included a cut in a key interest rate further below zero.
In Tokyo, the Bank of Japan held fire on further stimulus Tuesday but laid the groundwork for additional easing after cutting its deposit rate to minus 0.1% in January.
China’s central bank cut the main interest rate to a record low in six successive reductions through October, and recently made another reduction to the required-reserve ratio for major banks.
- Obama Says More Action Needed to Avert Another Financial Crisis
- Rethinking Fixed Income If Rates Rise
- Yellen Signals Rate Path Hinges on Whether Turmoil Persists
Register or login for access to this item and much more
All Financial Planning content is archived after seven days.
Community members receive:
- All recent and archived articles
- Conference offers and updates
- A full menu of enewsletter options
- Web seminars, white papers, ebooks
Already have an account? Log In
Don't have an account? Register for Free Unlimited Access