There is a possibility that the government’s aggressive stimulus spending and zero interest rates could backfire, saddling the U.S. economy with heavy debt, high unemployment and a “lost decade,” like Japan experienced in the 1990s, a growing number of economists and lawmakers fear.

“It seems to me we are on the exact same path that the Japanese took in their ‘lost decade,’ of running up huge government debts, of not stimulating growth and at the end of the decade, having this massive debt,” Senator Sam Brownback (R-Kan.), told the Associated Press.

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